February 2013 - Internet Resources Digest


Rational use of medicines

AIHA Internet Resources Digest

Spotlight on: Rational use of medicines

Spotlight on the Rational use of medicines

Rational use of medicines requires that "patients receive medications appropriate to their clinical needs, in doses that meet their own individual requirements, for an adequate period of time, and at the lowest cost to them and their community".

http://www.who.int/medicines/areas/rational _ use/en/index.html

International Projects and Organizations

WHO logoWHO Medicines—Rational Use

WHO advocates 12 key interventions to promote more rational use:
  • Establishment of a multidisciplinary national body to coordinate policies on medicine use
  • Use of clinical guidelines
  • Development and use of national essential medicines list
  • Establishment of drug and therapeutics committees in districts and hospitals
  • Inclusion of problem-based pharmacotherapy training in undergraduate curricula
  • Continuing in-service medical education as a licensure requirement
  • Supervision, audit and feedback
  • Use of independent information on medicines
  • Public education about medicines
  • Avoidance of perverse financial incentives
  • Use of appropriate and enforced regulation
  • Sufficient government expenditure to ensure availability of medicines and staff.


HAIHealth Action International (HAI) Africa

Health Action International (HAI) Africa is a growing regional network of consumers, NGOs, health care providers, academics and individuals in more than 20 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa promoting increased access to essential medicines, the essential medicines concept and the rational use of both modern and traditional medicines.


INRUDThe International Network for Rational Use of Drugs (INRUD)

INRUD is a network of multi-institutional groups that share a common vision for promoting the safe, effective, and cost-effective use of medicines. A key distinguishing feature of INRUD is its multidisciplinary focus on drug use and behaviour change linking clinical and social sciences.

Primary emphasis is placed on measuring the use of medicine using standardised indicators and then understanding the behavioural aspects of medicine use, particularly the beliefs and motivations of providers and consumers and the barriers to behaviour change, before designing and assessing interventions.

INRUD encourages rational use of medicines in low and middle income countries with both the promotion of well-designed research studies to understand these behavioural factors, leading to reproducible evidence-based interventions to improve medicine use; and the development of useful tools for research, including standard methodologies, validated collectable indicators, simplified sampling and data collection techniques, and useraccessible computer software. INRUD has also been involved in developing training materials and promoting many courses on improving use of medicines


ReActReAct - Action on Antibiotic Resistance

ReAct is an independent global network for concerted action on antibiotic resistance. ReAct aims for profound change in awareness and action to manage the interacting social, political, ecological and technical forces that drive the rising rate of resistant human and animal infection and the rapid spread of resistance within and between communities and countries.

ReAct acts as a forum for ideas, debate and collaboration between diverse stakeholders. It believes change will depend on engaging with social movements, civil society, community and consumer organizations, academia, health policy reformers and those individuals, networks or institutions that generate and analyze health-related knowledge and catalysing interaction between them on the issue.

ReAct operates an international secretariat with its administration based within Uppsala University where it is organized as a project funded by a number of Swedish agencies but predominantly by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida).

The Resource Center includes a selection of more than 400 published articles, reports and web tools to facilitate action on antibiotic resistance.


SIAPSStrengthening Pharmaceutical Systems (SPS) Program

In the early 1990s, USAID launched the Rational Pharmaceutical Management (RPM) Program to improve the way developing countries allocate and use pharmaceutical resources and information. It aimed to improve the “rational use” of medicines — making sure patients receive the right medication, in the right doses, for the right amount of time, at the lowest cost to them and their communities.

The RPM Plus Program followed in 2000, expanding on the original program to support a massive scale-up of treatment programs for infectious diseases around the world. Beginning in 2007, USAID’s Strengthening Pharmaceutical Systems (SPS) Program built on the achievements of RPM Plus to support successful national programs and adapt them for use in other countries. The SPS approach was comprehensive, aimed at strengthening health systems overall through initiatives across the health care spectrum, including governance and financing. Today, with renewed focus on empowering host countries and improving metrics for success, the SIAPS Program continues the USAID legacy of improving pharmaceutical management for better health outcomes.


Politics of MedicinesPolitics of Medicines Encyclopaedia

Health Action International (HAI) develops a first-of-its-kind, free, online encyclopaedia of the politics of medicines from the perspective of HAI's expert network of consumer groups, non-governmental organisations, health care professionals, academics, media and individual partners in more than 70 countries.

This project will become a comprehensive, easy-to-use and accessible resource for a broad audience that is engaged, or interested, in health advocacy, activism, civil society capacity building, or public health outcomes of the medicines market.

Discussion group with objective to support the concept of essential drugs by improving and speeding up communications among all health professionals in the field of essential drugs. Discussions focus on rational use of drugs, drug policy, economics and financing, supply and marketing, legislation and regulation, quality assurance, safety, and training.



Reforming Preservice Curriculum for Effective TrainingReforming Preservice Curriculum for Effective Training

Preservice curriculum reform is a costeffective and sustainable intervention that leads to broader health system strengthening. It provides students with a critical foundation of knowledge and skills and develops their competency to practice in the real world. SIAPS has developed a document on Revising Preservice Curriculum to Incorporate Rational Medicine Use Topics: A Guide. The document describes a stepwise process to add RMU components to preservice training curricula and includes several tools and templates. It also provides actual examples of curriculum reforms carried out in resource-constrained settings to include RMU, AMR and pharmacovigilance topics.


Essential Medicines Teaching Resources

WHO Department of Essential Medicines and Health Products (EMP) produces different educational resources that can be used by teachers. Some are produced as a departmental activity covering all aspects of Essential Medicine. Some training courses have been developed by technical units.

Training courses:

  • Promoting Rational Drug Use (English)
  • Promoting Rational Drug Use (French)
  • Promoting Rational Drug Use in the Community
  • Drug and Therapeutic Committee (DTC) Training Guides


Teaching the Rational Use of Medicines to medical students: a qualitative research

The discipline teaches future prescribers to use a logical deductive process, based on accurate and objective information, to adopt strict criteria on selecting drugs and to write a complete prescription. Most students considered the discipline very good due to the opportunity to reflect on different actions involved
in the prescribing process and liked the teaching methodology. Former students report that although they are aware of the RUM concepts they cannot regularly use this knowledge in their daily practice because they are not stimulated or even allowed to do so by neither older residents nor senior medical staff.

http:/ /www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6920/12/56

AIHA Internet Resources Digest Forthcoming Topics [Provisional]

  • Telemedicine
  • Open Access Initiatives
  • Resources on Pediatrics
  • Patient Information Services
AIHA Related Resources

Health Resources Digest, December 2012 - Resources on Complimentary and Alternative Medicine

About the AIHA Internet Resources Digest

The Internet Resources Digest — previously called the Health Resources Digest — is distributed free of charge as a service of the American International Health Alliance’s Learning Resources Project thanks to the generous support of the American people through the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). The Learning Resources Project is implemented through AIHA’s HIV/AIDS Twinning Center Program, which is funded through a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA).

The Internet Resources Digest is compiled by Irina Ibraghimova, PhD, Library and Information Management Specialist
HealthConnect International (www.healthconnect-intl.org). The contents are the responsibility of AIHA and do not necessarily reflect the views of PEPFAR, HRSA, or the United States Government.

If you have a suggestion for a Digest topic, or would like to contribute information about Internet resources, please contact ibra[at]zadar.net.

Back issues of the Internet Resources Digest for 2011-2012 are archived at www.healthconnect-intl.org/resources.html.

If this document is to be redistributed or posted on another Web site, we request that it be posted in full without alteration, and credit is given to the AIHA as the source of the document.


AIHA logo Twinning Center logo